Togon-temür, posthumous name (shi) (Yuan) Shundi, Wade-Giles romanization Shun-ti, (born 1320, China—died 1370, China), last emperor (reigned 1333–68) of the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1206–1368) in China, under whom the population was provoked into rebellion. In the early years of his reign, power was held by the anti-Chinese minister Bayan, who suspended the civil-service examinations, prohibited Chinese from wearing certain colours or using certain ideographs, and even proposed mass execution of Chinese on the basis of their names. However, the attempts to establish such tributary relationships were rebuffed and expeditions to Japan (twice), Dai Viet (twice during Kublai's rule[b]), and Java, would later meet with less success. This emerged as early as the end of Kublai's reign.
He sought the counsel of Chinese Buddhist and Confucian advisers. While he had claimed nominal supremacy over the rest of the Mongol Empire, his interest was clearly in China, along with the areas in its traditional Sinocentric tributary system. In 1302 Gammala died and Yesün Temür took over as Jinong. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.  Kublai built schools for Confucian scholars, issued paper money, revived Chinese rituals, and endorsed policies that stimulated agricultural and commercial growth.  He instituted the reforms proposed by his Chinese advisers by centralizing the bureaucracy, expanding the circulation of paper money, and maintaining the traditional monopolies on salt and iron, but rejected plans to revive the Confucian imperial examinations.. Yuaneko agintari ona izan zen, eta bere erregetzarekin hurrengo hamarkadetako botere harremanak zehaztu ziren. Updates? By 1276, most of the Southern Song territory had been captured by Yuan forces. Yuan control, however, began to break down in those regions inhabited by ethnic minorities. Afterwards, Tugh Temür abdicated in favour of his brother Kusala who was backed by Chagatai Khan Eljigidey and announced Khanbaliq's intent to welcome him. According to Chinese political orthodoxy, there could be only one legitimate dynasty whose rulers were blessed by Heaven to rule as Emperor of China (see Mandate of Heaven), and so the Ming and the Northern Yuan denied each other's legitimacy as emperors of China, although the Ming did consider the previous Yuan which it had succeeded to be a legitimate dynasty. Corrections? All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. The Prince of Liang, Basalawarmi established a separate pocket of resistance to the Ming in Yunnan and Guizhou, but his forces were decisively defeated by the Ming in 1381. His successors continued to rule until the submission to the Qing dynasty in the 17th century. The fourth Yuan emperor, Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan was a competent emperor.  Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Ogödei Khan. Shih-Shan Henry Tsai-Perpetual Happiness, p. 153.
The following centuries saw a succession of Genghisid rulers, many of whom were mere figureheads put on the throne by those warlords who happened to be the most powerful. The city came to be known as Khanbaliq ("City of the Khans") and Daidu to the Turks and Mongols and Dadu (大都, "Great Capital") to the Han Chinese. The three returned to the East and once again met with Kublai Khan, and it was said that Marco Polo served as an emissary of Kublai Khan throughout his domain for seventeen years. Thus, Zhenjin's third son, with the support of his mother Kökejin and the minister Bayan, succeeded the throne and ruled as Temür Khan or Emperor Chengzong for approximately 10 years following Kublai's death (between 1294 and 1307). Under the reign of Genghis' third son, Ögedei Khan, the Mongols destroyed the weakened Jin dynasty in 1234 and conquered most of northern China. An audio journey through the 5000 year history of one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. . Each example sentence includes a Japanese hint, the romaji reading, and the English translation. Deshou (Twin of Yilihaiya , Princess (100 years younger) , and Aiyashili (Twin of Yilihaiya Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols: From the 9th to the 19th Century, p. 303. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yesün_Temür_(Yuan_dynasty)&oldid=970169976, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "The Empire is a family of which the Emperor is the father. You can change your cookie settings at any time by following, #202.5 - Bonus: Strange Tales V.5: The Masque of the Red Death, #201 - Ming 1: Overflowing Martial Accomplishment, #198 - Mongol 15.1: The Toluid Revolution, #196 - Special: ReConsidering China with Xander Snyder & Eric Fogg, #194 - Intelligent Speech: Hidden Narratives from the Middle Kingdom. From the beginning of his reign, the other three khanates of the Mongol Empire became de facto independent and only one recognized him as Khagan. [a] The four major successor khanates never came again under true one rule, and border clashes also frequently occurred among them, although Yuan dynasty's nominal supremacy was recognized by the other three after the death of Kaidu. Temür Khan. B. Shirėndėv, Sh Luvsanvandan, A. Luvsandėndėv – Olon Ulsyn Mongolch Ėrdėmtniĭ III Ikh Khural, p. 347. In 1279, the Yuan army led by the Chinese general Zhang Hongfan had crushed the last Song resistance at the Battle of Yamen, which marked the end of the Southern Song and the onset of a united China under the Yuan. The Yuan bureaucrats made paper bills from the mulberry bark paper. Li Tan, the son-in-law of a powerful official, instigated a revolt against Mongol rule in 1262. Finally, he forbade the Lamas to enter China. Name in native language. He supported Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism and also devoted himself in Buddhism. Enthronement of Kublai Khan in 1260 as Khagan, officially assuming the role of Emperor of China as Emperor Shizu of Yuan starting in 1271. While the peace itself was short-lived and the war soon resumed, this established the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty over the western khanates that lasted for a few decades.  and reunited the Mongols. Yesün Temür was born in Mongolia in 1293 to Gammala, the eldest son of Zhenjin, who was presumed heir to his father Kublai Khan. Kublai was unable to read Chinese, but had several Han Chinese teachers attached to him since his early years by his mother Sorghaghtani. He also gave a few early signs of a new and positive direction in central government.
https://eu.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timur_Khan&oldid=8179149, Testuan txinera tradizionala duten artikuluak, Creative Commons Aitortu-PartekatuBerdin 3.0 lizentziari.
What is another name for the Bubonic Plague? However, the corruption in the Yuan dynasty began during the reign of Temür Khan.
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