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2010, Signal Books. Shallow-draught gabares and other river craft continued to transport goods into the industrial era, including coal from Saint-Étienne loaded on to barges in Orléans.

The region experiences a rainfall of 690 mm (27.2 in) along the coast and 648 mm (25.5 in) inland. Château de Blois interior façades in Gothic, Renaissance and Classic styles (from right to left). It was nearly closed in 1971 but, in the early 21st century, it still provides navigation further up the Loire valley to Digoin. In this section the river is relatively straight, except for the area near Orléans, and numerous sand banks and islands exist. tend to stay near the river mouth. [1], Although only one native fish species has become extinct in the Loire, namely the European sea sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) in the 1940s, the fish population is declining, mostly due to the decrease in the spawning areas. With decreasing flow, first species which appear are single-celled diatoms such as Cyclostephanos invisitatus, C. meneghiniana, S. Hantzschii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. At 662.69 metres (2,174.2 ft), this was the longest such structure in the world for quite some time.[27]. In 1429, Joan of Arc persuaded Charles VII to drive out the English from the country. [43] [43] The French government adopted the Natural Loire River Plan (Plan Loire Grandeur Nature) in January 1994, initiating the decommissioning of three dams on the river. They were succeeded by the kings of France, who ruled from the late 14th century till the French Revolution; together these rulers contributed to the development of the valley. Loire is located in: France, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Loire. pp 8–27, for the navigable section (guide in English, French and German), This article is about the river. The flow is no longer partly regulated by three dams: Grangent Dam and Villerest Dam on the Loire and Naussac Dam on the Allier. [21][22] In 1572 some 3000 Huguenots were slaughtered in Paris in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. The toads include Bufo bufo, Alytes obstetricans, Bombina variegata, Bufo calamita, Pelobates fuscus and Pelobates cultripes. Gallic rule ended in the valley in 56 BC when Julius Caesar conquered the adjacent provinces for Rome. Romans introduced melons, apples, cherries, quinces and pears during the Middle Ages, apart from extracting saffron from purple crocus species in the Orléans. [17] During the reign of François I from 1515 to 1547, the Italian Renaissance had a profound influence upon the region, as people adopted its elements in the architecture and culture, particularly among the elite who expressed its principles in their chateaus. [27][28] The 261 km (162 mi) Canal de Berry, a narrow canal with locks only 2.7 m (8.9 ft) wide, which was opened in the 1820s and connected the Canal latéral à la Loire at Marseilles-lès-Aubigny to the river Cher at Noyers and back into the Loire near Tours, was closed in 1955. Are you looking for the map of Loire? The lower-central swathe of its valley straddling the Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire regions was added to the World Heritage Sites list of UNESCO on December 2, 2000. [12] The Romans used the Loire as far as Roanne, around 150 km (93 mi) downriver from the source. [32], The middle stretches of the river have many limestone caves which were inhabited by humans in the prehistoric era; the caves are several types of limestone formations, namely tuffeau (a porous type of chalk, not to be confused with tufa) and Falun (formed 12 million years ago).

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